Ernakulam District is one of the important districts in Kerala which came into existence on 1 April 1958. It is bordered by Thrissur on the north, Idukki on the east, Alappuzha and Kottayam on the south and Lakshadweep Sea on the west. It comprises five taluks like Kanayannoor, Kochi, Kunnathunadu, Aluva and Paroor taluks. Kochi port comes under Ernakulam District and is referred to as the Queen of Arabian Sea. This district is densely populated and has well developed literacy. It has good achievements in development and growth by amalgamation of heritage, industry and commerce. Ernakulam represents the modern phase of the society and with high per capita income. The people in this district are updating themselves with unstoppable interest in social, cultural, political and economical happenings in the state and nation.
In 1405 AD, the king of Perumbadappu transferred its capital from Mahodayapuram to Kochi and paved the way to the glory of the kingdom. The Portugal traders landed in Kochi took the advantage of mutual enmity or quarrel that is often prolonged or inveterate between the king of Kochi and the Zamorin of Kozhikode. The king provided all facilities including the permission to set up a warehouse to the Portuguese traders. The traders were well-flourished in Kochi. There was a battle between the King of Kochi and the Zamorin. The King was defeated initially, but he regained his kingdom with the support of a warship from Portugal. Again, there was misunderstanding between the king of Kochi and the Portuguese traders. The King succeeded by chasing out the Portuguese traders from Kochi with the support of the Dutch.
Among all the kings, Sakthan Thampuran who ruled Kochi between 1790 and 1805 was the mightiest and expanded his kingdom. Most of the chief ministers of the kings named as Paliathachans belonged to the Chennamangalam village for more than 150 years. Around 1800, the administration of Kochi was taken over by the British. The kings paid tributes to them for their supremacy.
The cultural distinctions among the people living in Kochi also belonged to various faiths. Among the majority Hindus, the legacy of Kochi was shared by many Christians, Jews and Muslims. The number of Jewish living in Kochi has declined and went to Israel compared to previous decades. It is believed that St. Thomas was one of the twelve disciples who came to the Kodungalloor Harbour in 52 AD for spreading Christians.
In 1565 AD, the king of Kochi Kesavarama Varma provided all facilities to a Jewish town named Mattancherry. The century old buildings like The Mosques in Mattancherry, Fort Kochi and Edappally are evidence. The Arabs traders came to Kochi who built a Mosque in Fort Kochi. On the other side, Anglo Indians, Jains and the Sikhs also lived in peace at Kochi with a strong community spirit.
Ernakulam District receives heavy rainfall during the monsoon for years and it is unkind by bringing damages to properties and lives. The flora and fauna spread all over the mainland and hinterlands are rich. The three main rivers and two backwaters are the major sources of water for the development of agricultural, industrial and trade in Ernakulam. In recent years, the construction of huge over-bridges across many water ways such as the Goshree and Varapuzha reduced the importance of water-transportation and still it attracts many domestic and international tourists. Around 465 square kilometer is covered by Mangrove forests in this district. The foothills of Kodanad and Kothamangalam have a stable ecosystem. This district is abundant in cultivating paddy, coconuts and cash crops. The cultivation of pineapple is high in Ernakulam district, Kerala. Thattekkad and Mangalavanam are the two bird sanctuaries which give shelter to most of the endangered species of birds and spiders found in this district.